3 edition of The feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards found in the catalog.
The feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards
Arthur D. Little, Inc.
by The Division, Available from National Technical Information Service in Washington, D.C, Springfield, VA
Written in English
|Statement||prepared by Arthur D. Little, Inc. under contract no. EP-78-C-02-4734.A000 ; prepared for U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Division of Environmental Safety and Engineering|
|Contributions||United States. Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Environmental Safety and Engineering Division|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 v. (various pagings) :|
In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a. Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires. The continuous heat transfer from the fire to the tank wall increases the temperature and pressure inside the tank, until the tank Author: Robin Pitblado.
Fire hazards can be best explained by a Fire Tetrahedron It describes the four different factors required for ignition of a fire. The Inert Gas is introduced into a tank to remove the Oxygen side of the tetrahedron by reducing the Oxygen content below required percentage for combustion. At the bottom, there are some slots that directs LNG to several directions to promote mixing. It is positioned at the edge near tank wall. Top Filling. If incoming LNG is heavier than LNG at heel, it is recommended to do top filling. However, this method will generate excessive vapor due to flashing. To prevent this, we can reduce LNG flow rate.
Planas et al. () analyzed a road accident of a tanker transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) originated with a fire and, finally, the BLEVE. Though tanker originally kg of LNG, the approximate mass of fuel involved in the fireball was found to be 12, kg. Moreover, it was concluded that around kg of natural gas was lost Cited by: Sufficient safety barriers must be in place in order to keep the risk within acceptable limits. Liquefied natural gas has approximately times the energy density of natural gas at atmospheric conditions. LNG is typically stored at a pressure between 1 and 4 bar, whereby the equilibrium temperatures are approximately –°C to –°C.
Island of secrets
Your blood, and how it is used to save life.
Maryland social work services job analysis and personnel qualifications study
Authors and friends
RACER # #2895769
nightingale (a life of Chopin)
Nursing assignment in El Salvador.
Law for community clinics
Land application of residual materials
Dunbar R. Ransom.
In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate.
Get this from a library. The feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards. [Arthur D. Little, Inc.; United States. Department of Energy. Environmental and. The feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards / By Inc.
Arthur D. Little and United States. Dept. of Energy. Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Abstract "DOE/EV/T1.""Published August "Bibliography: p. R Mode of access: Internet Topics.
Arthur D. Little, Inc: The feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards / (Washington, D.C.: The Division, ; Springfield, VA: Available from National Technical Information Service, ), also by United States.
Dept. of Energy. Environmental and Safety Engineering Division (page images at HathiTrust). Specific conditions are required for the presence of LNG to lead to an explosion: • An ignition source. • Vapour within the flammability range (a methane concentration in air of between 5% and 15%; see Table ).
• Containment of the vapour cloud in a confined space, such as a building or Size: KB. Attack on a Tanker Carrying Liquefied Natural Gas Need Clarification. increase the duration of the fire hazards.
• Based on the data collected from the large-scale LNG pool fire tests conducted, thermal containment systems (hole size), mitigation techniques, the effect of sea water coming in.
LNG Tanker: Hazards Health Hazard-General. All gas tankers designed in such a manner that, in normal operations personnel need at no time be exposed to hazards form the products being transported.
This presupposes that the ship and her equipment are properly maintained and that operating instructions are strictly observed at all times.
However in the event of unavoidable situations 1/5(1). Fire hazard is the most common hazard, which is present in all areas of life. Most combustible materials are stored in a normal atmosphere, which contains oxygen, and so the risk of fire is then due to the possibility of an ignition source (see Fig.
).Combustible liquids can vaporise and so form an oxygen–air mixture at their surface that can be ignited. there are certain related fire hazards common to the various types of tanks. these hazards vary in severity from a simple vent fire to a full liquid surface tank fire.
the most. LNG storage tanks for maritime shipping and road transport, as well as future tanks for use in rail, are built to stringent standards and are inherently more robust than crude, fuel and chemical tanks. LNG tanks are always double-walled with extensive pressure relief systems.
(a) Each marine transfer area for LNG must have a dry chemical system that provides at least two dry chemical discharges to the area surrounding the loading arms, one of which must be—. (1) From a monitor. (2) Actuated and, except for preaimed monitors, controlled from a location other than the monitor location.
Natural gas has an auto-ignition temperature of oC, which is higher than most other fuels (e.g., diesel at oC, premium grade gasoline at oC, propane at oC). If ignited, LNG presents four potential fire risk scenarios: vapor cloud flash fire, jet fire, pool fire, and vapor cloud explosion.
The nitrogen line is used to extinguish the flame and purge the system once ignition takes place. The electrical heating system (Fig.
2) uses the basic design of Anthony et al. . The heating circuit consists of a A service which heats the foil via A and A variable by: valves should be provided as well as automatic fire extinguishing systems that protect both the rack and the vehicle.
Two general fire possibilities exist; 1, when the tank truck does not overflow and 2, when it does overflow. In the first case, a hatch fire results and portable dry chemical or carbon dioxide extinguishers can do an effective Size: KB.
Fire involving LNG & LPG cargo - various fire fighting agents & safety aspects Natural gas contains numerous component gases but by far the greater percentage is methane (CH4), which represents between 60 and 95 per cent of the total volume. This fact is important when considering the safety aspects for fire-fighters tackling an LNG fire.
LNG pool fire hazards are localized and as a result thermal radiation effects (2nd degree burns) are typically confined to within one or two pool diameters from the edge of the flame.
This significantly limits the extent of impact. As a result, LNG tankers and bulk storage tanks are not attractive targets. v) improved emergency response systems to reduce fire and dispersion hazards and improved emergency response coordination and communication.
Fig:LNG carrier underway Risk prevention and mitigation techniques are especially useful in zones where the potential impact on public safety and property can be high. The major contributions to the risk associated with LNG shipping are found to stem from five generic accident categories, i.e.
collision, grounding, contact, fire and explosion, and events. •EPC / Site Construction Projects – Tank Farm, Plant Piping, Storage Tanks for Crude Oil & Finished Products etc. •Pressure Vessels & Tanks Manufacturing – Knock out Drums, Filters, Vent Drums, Separators etc.
•Gas Projects – Storage Tanks & System Installation for LP, Propane – Aerosol/Odorless & Synthetic Natural Gases – Piping Networks Industrial, Building etc. LNG is a liquid that won't burn until it becomes a vapor, and the vapor won't burn until it mixes with air and becomes diluted to between 5 percent and 15 percent LNG vapor in air.
Above 15 percent, there's not enough air for it to burn, and below 5 percent, there's not enough LNG vapor to burn. Ignition hazards from static electricity can be controlled by the following methods: 1.
Removing the ignitible mixture from the area where static electricity could cause an ignition-capable discharge.
2. Reducing charge generation, charge accumulation, or both by means of process or product modifications. 3. Neutralizing the charges.Hazard Analysis of Crude Oil Storage Tank Farm.
Foam supply and prod uction system for the tank fire particularly the petrochemical industries such as ethylene and Liquefied Natural Gas Author: Haidar Ibrahim.and protection measures in order to reduce the major-accident hazards.
In Annex A of the present paper the application of the Inde xed Method to an underground tank stocking liq uefied petroleum.